Dijkstra's algorithm for finding the shortest paths in a graph is a classical one that most students of computer science get to learn about, although I suspect few have actually read the original paper. Published in the very first volume of the journal Numerische Mathematik in 1959, an official copy of the three-page paper A Note on Two Problems in Connexion with Graphs is available from SpringerLink, although you would have to be at an academic institution with a subscription or have a personal subscription to SpringerLink to download the paper.

Let us say that someone gives you a lopsided bet. Say that with probability one gets heads, and with probability one gets tails, and you have to pick heads or tails. You only know the outcome of the first event. Let's say after the first toss it came out heads. What is the probability that ?